Did the Vikings ever invade Ireland?

Nordic countries. Viking monks - sailors


1 Nordic countries Viking monks - sailors

2 Cover picture: Fishing boat in Narssaq (Greenland)

3 THE CARAVAN Issue 2-5. Born 1964/65 NORDIC LANDER Wikinger - Mönche - Seefahrer Published by KARAWANE-VERLAG LUDWIGSßURG with the support of the Office for Regional and Ethnographic Ludwigsburg

4 INHALTS VER ZEI CH NI S Prof. Dr. Friedrich Seebass Page HELLULAND, MARKLAND AND VINLAND 3 Stud. Dir. Herbert Weise SW- G R 0 N LAND - with special consideration of the Norman settlement 13 Gymn. Dietrich Ottmar LOFOT FISHING BETWEEN TRADITION AND PROGRESS 34 Wiss. Council Dr. Fritz Fezer THE LAKE DISTRICT- a Scandinavian landscape in Northern England 41 Dr. Wolfgang Hellwig IRELAND - A NORDIC COUNTRY? 46 Dr. Elisabeth Kleberger THE INFLUENCE OF THE IRISH MONCHS CHURCH ON EUROPE IN THE MERRY MIDDLE AGES ~ FROM THE PEN OF OUR TRAVEL FRIENDS 61 FROM THE CIRCLE OF OUR EMPLOYEES 63 LITERATURE AND NOTES 63

5 Prof. Dr. FRIEDRICH SEEBASS HELLULAND, MARKLAND, VINLAND In the northern part of the Atlantic Ocean, the continents of the Old World, separated from the ocean, are moving closer together and, with their islands, bays, mountain ledges and valleys, divide the vast expanse of the Atlantic into broad inlets, marginal seas and tributaries, which give the ocean a different character. As the southern, natural boundary of the North Atlantic area, a line can be drawn from the southern shelf of the Newfoundland Islands over the "Flemish Cap" - Porcupine Bank in front of Ireland - to the southern tip of Ireland; in the north the pack-ice border forms an end, albeit a changing one. From the end of the 9th century to the end of the 12th century, this area was a stomping ground for experienced and coarse seafarers who raced with the waves with their slim, well-built ships, although this sailing area had to be regarded as one of the most difficult and dangerous. No wonder that the seafaring peoples of antiquity, who had acquired their skills in the Mediterranean, did not venture into these northern latitudes like the Vikings. It is not only the changing wind conditions of the air masses of tropical, temperate and arctic origin fighting each other for supremacy, but above all strong ocean currents that put the boat off course, almost impenetrable masses of fog, especially on the west side and around Iceland, where the warm Gulf-Irminger current meets the ice-cold water masses of the Labrador and East Greenland currents, in which one loses all orientation without a compass, furthermore ice floes and the feared icebergs, especially at night and in fog, that drift south from Greenland. It could also easily happen that ships were caught by the fast oncoming winter and froze to the ground, and that provisions and water ran out. If you were near the coast you could go hunting for seals and polar bears if the weather allowed it. What drove the Nordmanns to drive into these rooms? The opposite bank was poor enough, offered no treasure and, since there was mostly no forest, not even a stove for the stove. Since no merchant ships turned up, it was not possible to join the 3

6 pursue profitable piracy business. We cannot be satisfied with the thirst for adventure that is often drawn; it was there, but not the primary driving force. Two reasons were decisive, which can be found in the character traits of the northern European population of that time: firstly, the indomitable sense of freedom of the gentlemen who did not want to be subordinate to any other gentleman, and secondly, the will to undisturbed control of their own territory. On the other hand, there was no land in barren Norway, and so the paradoxical cry for new land was the real driving force among the daring seafarers. The barreness of the new territory, the harsh climate, the terrible ode of subpolar and polar spaces did not deter, but increased the resistance. If new territory was discovered that could only somehow be settled, the news went like wildfire through all the home ports and hiding places of the seafarers and people were urged to leave. This is the only way to explain that Iceland was inhabited down to the last habitable area within a century, despite all the barreness and misery, and one had to look around for more rooms. The decisive advance to Greenland, which had been sighted decades earlier, was made by an Icelandic gentleman, Rolf the Red, who was outlawed and expelled from the country for manslaughter. He sailed from Bredefjord in 983 and reached the southern tip of Greenland in the same year, where he settled at what is now Julianehaab and established a farm called "Brattahlid" (= on the steep slope). Some grass grew here so that the cattle that were brought along found poor pasture. The coastal seas were rich in fish, but especially in seals and polar bears, so that food could be ensured even in winter. The desire to enlarge his small colony led him to return to Iceland three years later, after his term had expired, and to organize a major emigration from Iceland to the new territory. He called it "grassland" because he thought the name had to fake something better to attract settlers. At the same time, wood had to be procured from Norway or Scotland for shipbuilding and steelworks. But only 12 of his 25 ships made it to their destination. With this human contribution, the south-west coast could gradually be taken into possession up to about the height of Godthaab. Later, the Norsemen reached the Upernavik area, where a rune stone was erected by three Norsemen on the island of Kingigtorsuak under 72 55 "AD

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8 sem converted to Christianity. Olaf gave Leif the task of returning to Greenland and introducing Christianity there. On the way back to Greenland, in the year 1000, he encountered violent storms and strong ocean currents, which put his ship out of course and led to a previously unknown coast. Here one could go ashore without difficulty and there Leif found wild wine plants that were only known from more southern shores. He therefore called the country: Vinland. It seems as if Bjarne Herjulfsson and Leif Eriksson were brought to the same coastline. According to the inadequate descriptions one must assume that this was not the steeper and more inaccessible rough coast of Newfoundland, closed in winter, but the ice-free and flatter coast of southern New Scotland, where one could also reckon with the occurrence of wild wine. The Labrador Current, which forms powerful eddies on the southern Newfoundland Plate, continues to flow strongly along the coast of Nova Scotia from there. The most common interpretation of the Vinland discovered by Leif with Nova Scotia seems to be the closest, especially since it must be assumed that Leif only stayed on the outer coast and that this probably also sailed back northwards and thus was able to determine the increasing barreness of the area on the coast. When he returned to Greenland, he told his father about the new territory, which must have died shortly afterwards. Leif seems to have sailed to Vinland again, he equipped an expedition fleet of 3 ships with emigrants on board. Mainly two Icelandic sources tell us about these events, one is the writings of the Norwegian gentleman Haukr Erlendsson, who was from "Lagman" (law enforcement officer and chief judge) in Iceland. His records are summarized in the so-called "Hauksb6k", which includes a. contains the "Eiriks saga hins rautha", which reports on the voyages of discovery by Erich the Red and his son Leif and their followers. On the other hand, the "Grönlendinga thattr", which is recorded in the Flateyarb6k, a manuscript that was written before 1380 and belonged to an Icelandic farm owner on the Flat Island. Even if, as is well known, fact, legend and poetry are recorded in the Icelandic sources in a colorful motley, one can infer essential historical and historical-geographical facts from them if criticism is necessary, especially if they 6

9 should be underlined by previous sources. Two such informants give a fairly clear testimony; once the Bremen abbot Adam of Bremen in his "Hamburg Church History" around 1075 and later the Icelandic chronicler Arne Frode Torgilsson in his "Islendigab6k" ca After them "Vinland" was well known - it is described as an island and - let's follow Adam of Bremen - "behind this island" begins the anecumene, there is no habitable land and everything is covered by impenetrable ice masses and wrapped in endless darkness. It is obvious that Adam Vinland counted as part of an area directly next to Greenland, which corresponded to the general opinion at the time. - The two Icelandic sources mentioned above diverge rather strongly and give very little geographical clues. We pick out the sentences that essentially appear to be truthful descriptions and which are also likely to have served as a basis for several researchers into the location and character of Vinland. Naturally, opinions about it must differ significantly, since the argurnenturn ex silentio draws the line between fact and speculation everywhere. The fundamental work on the overall question seems to me to be that of G. Storm in his "Studier over Vinlands rejserne" (Aarböger for Nordisk Oldkyndighet 1887). He moves Vinland to Nova Scotia. Most of the country customers written by geographers (Dietrich, Machatschek, etc.) agree with this opinion. K. Weinhold, a good expert on Icelandic Old Norse scripts (K. Weinhold G. Sieber: "Altnordisches Leben" 2. Auf !. 1938) categorically understands Helluland = Newfoundland, Markland = Nova Scotia and Vinland = the New England states. M. Th6rdarson ("The Vinland voyages" in Amer. Geogr. Soc. R.S) means Vinland Nova Scotia and Maine. R. Hennig ("Terrae incognitae II" 1944) is looking for Vinland in Massachusetts after initially thinking of New Brunswick. He describes the Labrador coast as Helluland. Steensby takes a different view ("The norsemen's route Köbenhavn" 1918). He is looking for Vinland in the upper estuary of the St. Lawrence River, about across from Quebec. Further interpretations can be added - the differences in the assessment of the location of Vinland are mainly based on two essential questions. Once: "How far was the area first discovered by Leif Eriksson identical to the area that the later expeditions call Vinland- 7

10 ten? "And on the other hand:" Which route did the Vinland expedition take from Greenland to Vinland? "It turns out that one has to follow certain routes and link them to the location of Vinland. Let's follow the Vinland search expedition, which took place in 1003 from Greenland Three ships, led by Thorfinn Karlsefni, are sailing southwest - the natural path led to the northeast coast of Labrador, which one should have sailed along. The land was a desolate sight - a hard, ice-abraded rocky land, furrowed by frost and rain Coast shaved off by ice floes on the surf terrace, littered with boulders; a desolate, desolate tundra landscape spreads inland. The weather-bitten forest that adjoins further south takes little of the image of desolation. Karlsefni gave this area the name "Helluland" ( isl. = rock country) Only when the mouth of the Hamilton River is reached does the barren landscape turn into a conifer enwaldoase, and south of 51 1/2 A.D. the coniferous forest begins to become thicker and to give the landscape a more closed character. Its spruce and larch stocks, among which poplar and aspen stocks also appear, have grown better and are suitable as construction timber. Karlsefni called this southern area "markland" (isl. = Woodland), which is likely to correspond to the southernmost part of the Labrador coast, but also to Newfoundland. When we reach Belle Isle Street, we are at a crossroads. The main stream of the Labrador Current, which is also followed by the ice floes, continues southward; a side branch splits off here and leads onto Belle Isle Street. In the colder months of the year, the drifted ice floes block the entrance, but here too the current is so strong that the road is easy to use in the sails of the year. If Leif Eriksson followed the outer coast on his second voyage shortly after the year 1000 and also the expedition from 1003, we have to look for Vinland south of Neu-Fundland and thus come to the coastal area first discovered by Leif Eriksson. The few vegetation information and the information that winter days would never be shorter than nine hours apply fully to southern Nova Scotia and northern New England, and in the absence of more detailed geographical information, Vinland can be equated with this area. One might then assume that different Vinland drivers sailed this route. 8th

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12 Our view of the position of Vinland has to change if we follow the ships through the Belle Isle Strait into St. Lawrence Bay or if we sail past Newfoundland and reach the Lorenz Sea through Cabotsund. The natural continuation of this route must lead to the St. Lawrence River, and the Viking who did not follow this current road upwards should never have been born. The Viking was an unsurpassed master in mastering the streams and rivers with occasional crossings over isthmuses, where the ships were placed on wooden rollers. To be sure, sailing through the Belle Isle Strait and through the Lorenz Sea to the Lorenz Current and upwards was more difficult than the trip down the outer coast. Because the ice conditions were much more difficult and could cause wintering before continuing when the season was more advanced. Here the descriptions in the Icelandic sources give us some weak clues. It says there: "Thorfinn sailed with his three ships along the coast of Helluland and Markland to a narrow peninsula of Kjalarnes and to a sandy beach on Furdu-Strandir (on a coast covered with pine trees), whereupon they wintered on the Straumenfjord." The name Strauma (current) still occurs today in Norway as the name of a narrow fjord exit, in which a powerful current runs through it, at high tide uphill with a gradient into the fjord and at low tide with a downward gradient towards the sea - Straumen near Bodö is famous for this Phenomenon shows great. Two passages apply particularly well to this specification, one is the sin entrance between Labrador and Newfoundland, the northwest side of which ends in a long, narrow peninsula that borders the Belle Isle Strait in the east. At high tide, the water of the Labrador Sea is pressed into the road, supported by the Labrador current, at low tide the water floods seaward and meets the Labrador Current here, creating eddies. The other point is in the interior of the Fundybay, which separates Nova Scotia from New Brunswick.Here is the greatest tidal range of the oceans that has been measured so far, at 15.5 m at spring tide. If this is what this point is meant, Nova Scotia would be the long, narrow peninsula on the inner part of which one wintered. There was then the option of sailing further south to get to Maine - or you could advance to New Brunswick. Only the winter conditions south of Nova Scotia would have needed less winter if the winter was not particularly severe 10

13 was. From the Straumafjord they drove further south to a place called H6th. If you come from the Lorenzsee, you have to look for this H6th on the Lorenzstrom. Passed-over corridors with wild wheat (presumably wild rice) and wild grapes were found at H6th. It was here that the northerners also came into contact with the natives, presumably with Indians who belonged to the Algonquin tribe. The Greenlandic Vikings called them "Skraelingiar" (skral = bad). They are portrayed as dark-skinned men of wild, cruel appearance, with shaggy hair, large eyes and protruding jawbones. The colony that had settled in H6th initially began bartering. Good furs were bought against colorful headscarves. The Skrälinger also wanted to exchange weapons, which they admired, but the Nordmanns refused to accept. The weapons of the savages consisted of stone axes, slingshots and arrows. Gradually quarrels arose, ambushed murder and then repeated raids on the colony. The Indians charging in their canoes could only be repulsed with difficulty. The savages used a peculiar way of fighting in the fighting. From a high pole they hurled a large stone sewn into a leather pouch with magical drawings on it. They were so-called demon heads with which one wanted to intimidate the enemy. In these battles the leader of the north men was also killed. After that, the colonists decided to retreat to the Straumfjord, the banks of which were apparently uninhabited. - The description of the fight shows more or less that the fighting must have taken place on a river, or on an inland lake, where the canoes were not carried away by the current. It is obvious that the Indians must have been overwhelmingly outnumbered, otherwise the battle-hardened northerners could have fought them off. So H6th must have been in a more densely populated area that gave the Indians good grazing grounds and cultivation areas - the type of development seems to indicate a semi-nomadic turn. Steensby's view that Vinland must have been in the Quebec area cannot be dismissed out of hand, and one would even like to extend the area to Lake Ontario with its more fertile arable land and the late autumn frosts. Further west,

14 well-known wine-growing areas. In summary one could take the following view: Two areas are primarily considered as space for the "Vinland" of the Icelandic tales: First, the area of ​​southern Nova Scotia, the area around Fundy Bai, then the country of Maine, which adjoins southwards; on the other hand branches on the Lorenzstrom and on the Ontario lake. Presumably we have to reckon with these two areas "Vinland", the first named would be the Vinland of Leif Ericssons and the second the colony area of ​​the Vinland expedition. Further colonist ships are likely to have come to the newly developed areas in the course of the 11th century, but no sources give any information. Greenland's first bishop, the Icelander Erik Gnupson, came to Greenland around 1112. It is reported that he perished in 1121 while driving to Vinland. Little by little, the colonies in Vinland lost contact with their mother countries, even if Greenland ships arrived several times to fetch construction and shipbuilding timber. According to Thorkall Johannesson, a ship came from Greenland to Markland in 1347, perhaps with a remnant of the Greenland settlers who withdrew from the Eskimos. After the great plague, which killed over a third of the Norwegian population (middle of the 14th century), the voyage on the North Atlantic is likely to have come to a standstill - the Vinland colonies, which were in short supply and which were caused by diseases (emaciated tuberculosis) were weakened, were approaching their downfall. When, just five years after Columbus, the Genoese John Cabot came to Nova Scotia and the area of ​​the later New England states on behalf of England, he was just as unable to discover a trace of old Norman settlements as the two Portuguese Cortereal brothers, nor did the French Jacques Cartier, who did a few Decades later explored the Lawrence River and became the founder of the French colonies in North America. No wild horses, cattle or sheep, no customs of the natives, no rune stone reminded of the Viking colonies of the 11th and 12th centuries. Fritjof Narrsen therefore went so far that he denied the existence of such colonies at all and rejected the discovery of North America 500 years before Columbus in the realm of legend. After all, the discovery of Vinland did not seem to have been completely forgotten. In connection with the search for the 12th

15 Sea route to India, the King of Portugal asked the Danish rulers to research the countries Leif Ericsson had discovered. A Danish expedition to Newfoundland and the St. Lawrence River is said to have gone under the Danish Didrik Pining and the Norwegian Jon Skolp. But only oral traditions are available, written sources are missing. Nothing is known about the outcome of the expedition. There is a possibility that the Portuguese or Spanish rulers had vague ideas (see also H. Nelson: North America Vol. I, Stockholm 1935 pg. 134). Vinland shares the fate of all Viking foundations - they remained episodic because the motherlands were no longer able to radiate power - the Viking colonists either died away or were absorbed into another nationality. Only one colony survived because it was the only one able to set up its own business and create its own cultural center that could assert itself against all the adversities of nature and the isolated location: Iceland. We owe the Vinlandsagas, however, the oldest Indian history written by Europeans. City Dir. HERBER T W EIS E SW -GRONLAND - with special consideration of the Norman settlement The name Greenland is generally associated with the ideas of ice and snow, fog and storm. One remembers the numerous tragedies in the history of polar research that took place among these natural elements. Perhaps one thinks less about the meaning of the name "grassland", which seems to contradict all of this. But this bridges the gap to the memorable voyages of the Vikings, the discovery of Greenland and the Americas. The name Gränland makes sense if you look at it as an advertising slogan for Norman settlement propaganda in old Norway and in new Iceland: Erich the Red was looking for men, yes, entire families, in the country he found - in his opinion promising - country wanted to live so as not to submit to the Norwegian King Harald Fairhair 13

16, who gradually established a Norwegian kingdom towards the end of the first millennium. The geographical features of Greenland are briefly outlined: At square kilometers, Greenland is the largest island in the world; it is almost nine times the size of the Federal Republic of Germany. From 59 46 '(Cap Farvel) it extends over 2600 km to 83 39' N. Br km 2 of which are covered with inland ice, that is around 82 / o. The ice-free coastal area therefore covers km 2, of which only about km 2 are inhabited, which corresponds to 0.7 / o of Greenland or 43 / o of the ice-free coast. Two thirds of all Greenlandic settlements are on the west coast. The population has fluctuated since 1955 (Geogr. Stat. I. Peterm. Geogr. Mitt. 105, born in 1961). The geographical integration of Greenland is not so easy: geologically it belongs to North America, climatically to the Arctic, historically to Europe, politically to Denmark, strategically to the USA and geographically it is of global importance. The climatic conditions in Greenland are quite different. The ice cap naturally occupies a special position. Here the temperatures stay below 0 degrees every month and drop as a minimum to 32 degrees in the middle of the inland ice. The ice has an average thickness of 1,500 m, the maximum is over 2,000 m. In eastern Greenland the ice cap reaches its maximum height of m, and in the north even depressions of m are covered by the ice. Greenland's ice cubator with 2.6 million km 3 represents 12% of the ice volume of the earth (according to the results of the French expedition of P. E. Victor). The fringes of SW Greenland show obvious differences in temperature according to location and season, whereby the inner fjord landscapes stand out clearly from the outer coastal zones: Ivigtut - 8.4 (] an.) + 9.8 (July) Juliauehab - 9, 0 + 8.4 Godthab - 10.1 o + 6.5 o Upernavik - 23.0 + 4.9 The annual mean in the southern ice-free coastal area is about +1; a decrease towards the north is understandable. The inner fjord landscape is also favored because the high dryness of the air as a result of the foehn-like winds that blow down from the inland ice result in low precipitation and freedom from fog. The outer coastal areas, on the other hand, are subject to the sea winds that bring rain and fog. 14th

17 A kayak (men's fur boat) The ice conditions in the sea around southern Greenland are inevitably directed by the currents of the sea and the winds. The East Greenland Current brings the broken pack ice from the east coast and from the arctic north. In Greenlandic, this pack ice is called "storis", which usually blocks the east coast even in summer. From May to June this ice also reaches Cap Farvel as far as the west coast under the influence of the West Greenland drift and occasionally clogs the fjord exits of SW Greenland - especially with westerly winds. In July and August this drift ice decreases more and more, so that the SW coast becomes almost completely free of ice. The West Greenland Drift is a mixed current of the cold water of the East Greenland Current and the warm water of the Irminger Current, which branches off from the Gulf Stream near Iceland. This drift turns to the west approximately at the height of Godthab, only to then assume a southerly direction in the course of the Labrador Current. This current pattern recorded here was certainly known to the Vikings, and it was of great importance for the success of their voyages to the west, which we will come back to later. 15th

18 There are three types of ice in the fjords of SW Greenland: drift ice, which only penetrates in westerly winds; the calf ice, which comes from the glaciers that flow into the fjords, and finally the actual fjord ice, which forms in winter and drifts towards the sea at the beginning of summer. In terms of landscape, SW Greenland is one of the ice-free polar landscapes, a region between the polar forest and snow line. This area is geographically characterized by the tundra vegetation, belongs to the frost debris zone of the Arctic countries and thus includes all periglacial phenomena. At its edge, the inland ice merges into the Nunatak Zone, an area in which the highest peaks of the subsurface protrude from the ice. The hitherto closed ice cover gradually dissolves into individual ice streams of often enormous dimensions, interspersed with a regular system of crevices, which is determined by the subsoil, direction and speed of flow. The retreat of glaciers, which has also been observed in Greenland since around 1920, has led to the accumulation of considerable lateral moraines, the gray masses of debris clearly standing out from the natural rock. These ice flows finally end in the fjords, which are embedded in the bare, rounded hump landscape, which has been abandoned by the ice and smoothed by it, and which are open towards the sea in a SW direction. As far as the glaciers reach the water of the fjords, they push themselves a little beyond this water surface until this glacier edge finally loses its connection with the ice mass and breaks off into the fjord water: the glacier calves. Fjords of this kind carry icebergs that swim towards the sea in bizarre, often grotesque shapes and colors from pure white to particularly impressive turquoise. Other fjord ends are already so filled with glacier debris as a result of the post-glacial land uplift that the glaciers themselves often end far in the interior of the fjord on the gravel bed. These monotonous gravel plains are criss-crossed by the milky, cloudy meltwater, which often shuttles haphazardly back and forth on the gravel cover before they reach the open water of the fjord. Such ice-free fjords are of course very beneficial for the ship's railway, which the Normans obviously recognized when choosing their settlement sites. In many cases, however, such a fjord only receives the supply of icebergs through a side arm. This phenomenon is particularly noticeable in the Tunugdliarfik (Eriks Fjord) at the point - below Brattablid - where the Korok flows into the icebergs. The old settlement of Gardar (lga- 16

19 The inland ice (in the background) dissolves towards the west coast in huge glacial streams on liko) lies on such an ice-free fjord. This inner fjord landscape is not only a pronounced tundra, but is already approaching the polar tree line, which can be seen here with the appearance of smaller and larger (up to 5 m high) birches, willows, alders and rowan trees. In the sheltered lowlands, wide grass corridors stretch out, which, in addition to the woods, provided the basis for Norman settlement. Towards the exit of the fjords, low round humps and a vast archipelago dominate the landscape. The unfavorable ice conditions in the outer fjord region described above, of course, particularly inhibit the ship's railroad and are also the reason why the Viking settlements were in the inner fjord areas. The overall landscape of SW Greenland outside the ice edge zone is varied and rapidly changing in summer. Round hump peaks with little vegetation give way to steep Fjeld mountain breaks; dwarf shrubs spread on the less inclined embankments; Northern slopes are covered with moss, 17

20 and in sunny, moist lowlands and on the banks of rivers, willows grow, in more sheltered locations also birches, alders and rowan trees - albeit mostly in the form of cripples. Water-rich valleys let herbaceous and flowering plants grow in such abundance that you almost want to forget you are in Greenland. The glacial gravel masses show lichen and shrub vegetation in the more protective boulder seas, while the sand and gravel fields are mostly poor in vegetation. In addition to wide grass corridors, one encounters moss swamp depressions, which often surprise with their extensive cotton grass areas. The actual coastal zone with its abundance of fog is dominated by the moss-covered archipelago, which has occasionally been fought for by dwarf shrubs or is completely bare. The geological conditions of the rather narrow, ice-free coastal area of ​​SW Greenland are not always easy to clarify, since the connection with the part of the Greenlandic Shield lying under the inland ice allows only guesswork. Precambrian gneisses and granites and younger Paleozoic red sandstones, which are mostly heavily metamorphosed, form the petrographic basis, which was subject to strong dislocations in the course of the Caledonian division. Sediments enclosed by cover folds were greatly altered, so that especially the frequently occurring red sandstones were transformed into quartzites. Tertiary deposits provide evidence of a warmer climate prior to Quaternary glaciation. Old and young volcanic effluent rocks rose along the lines of weakness created during the Paleozoic and Tertiary mountain formations. Almost all valleys and fjords are bound to such tectonic rifts. The diverse surface design of the country is a result of the diversity and resistance of the rocks and also the manifold strength of the erosion forces. The stable gneisses and granites form the round humps, only at heights over 1000 m do they take on pointed and bizarre shapes. The sandstone tends towards plains and table mountains with caiion-like valleys. The diabase dikes in the basement are subject to rapid weathering. In the fjords these weathered old effluent rocks often form bays that were just as welcome to the Northmen as the diabase dyke plains between two fjords, which they used as natural transitions. These diabase galleries are also the sites where the Vikings and Eskimos found the 18th century

21 In the Eriksfjord, the landscape reveals the versatile petrographic structure of the rock and its morphological consequences due to the weathering of the soapstone from which they carved their refractory cooking utensils. The presence of thermal springs indicates that the tectonic processes have not yet come to rest. Hot springs can be found on old Greenland maps from the mid-18th century.Historical Danish reports from the year 1380, which speak of boiling springs and fire-breathing mountains in Greenland, may well have ignored the true circumstances; there is probably some confusion with neighboring Iceland. Nevertheless, there is a thermal bath of 40 degrees on the island of Unartok. The cryolite deposits of I vigtut, the Crete coal of Disko Island and the galena deposit of VOJl Mestersvig on the east coast are to be mentioned as mineral resources. 1) 19th

22 From a state perspective, Greenland is part of Denmark; the constitution of 1953 incorporated it into the mother country and at the same time anchored civil equality with it. The Greenland Ministry in Copenhagen - which also includes two Greenland MPs - generally exercises government powers in Greenland. The administrative seat is Godthab on the west coast, an area which, because of its high density of settlements, is only entitled to appoint the two representatives. The sparsely populated northern and eastern Greenland, on the other hand, is directly subordinate to the Greenland Ministry. The judiciary is practiced according to Danish law, with special provisions corresponding to the nature of the country, particularly in criminal law. The Danish flag is shown; the national language is Danish; School attendance is compulsory from the age of seven to fourteen. The sociological nature is determined by the dependence on the natural conditions, by the Eskimo influence in the folk element, by the social policy of the Danes and last but not least by the inclusion of Greenland in the military protection of the USA. The fortnightly newspaper "Grönlandposten / Atuagagdliutit" is printed in Danish and Greenlandic. This newspaper hardly differs from one of our daily papers; Their content ranges from the political lead article to the indispensable novel to the comic strips. The extensive advertising section, which is entirely geared to the needs of Greenland, remains interesting; From the outboard motor to the sewing machine to the tonic water, everything is advertised that makes life in the barren nature easier, better or more enjoyable for Greenlanders. The political data of Greenland from the most recent modern times are added for the sake of completeness: After Norway's separation from Denmark in 1814, Greenland remains Danish, and the Hague International Court of Justice continues to award Denmark against Norway's objection. The island is included in the protection of the United States ; the contract is renewed in 1951, Gränland receives the already mentioned civil equality with the motherland. The economy is determined by fishing. The rise in temperatures in the waters of southern Greenland around the twenties led to the immigration of various fish species that were previously absent there: haddock, redfish and especially cod. Cod fishing has now become the most profitable industry in southern Greenland. Cod was already there at the beginning of the 19th century - meaning 20

23 not the little polar cod, which has always been known there - once was well represented here; around 1850 it disappeared entirely. Since 1920, however, its distribution increased considerably. The assessment of the causal relationships between fish abundance and temperature change must not exclude the factor of improving fishing methods. Under the influence of the experienced Danish and Faroese fishermen, the Greenlanders are now also catching from motor boats, thereby increasing the yields, and so the fishing grounds could also be shifted to the north, so that today at around 70 degrees N.B. more is caught than in the southern coastal waters. That besides the Greenlanders also other nations catch in the fishing grounds of Greenland, and that their yields are much higher, is only mentioned in passing. The rich fishing grounds on Davis Street are too far for the local fishermen to be able to safely reach with their small boats. Nevertheless, the Greenlandic population has become a fishing people through the cod catch. In addition to the difficult climatic conditions, spatial conditions must also be taken into account in order to put the problems of fishing in Greenland in the right light. Around 2500 fishermen catch on a coastal stretch of almost 2000 km and live in around 80 villages themselves! In addition to fishing for cod, fishing for halibut and shark also plays a lucrative role, even though the culmination point seems to have been exceeded here since around 1920. The reasons may be found in overexploitation or a rise in temperature. Since 1935, however, the shrimp fishing has flourished; presumably one of the richest crab sites in the world is to be found in the waters of southwest Greenland. The crab has the advantage of being immune to temperature fluctuations; the only thing that matters is not to over-fish this branch. The seal hunt is a very special Greenlandic affair and early on it was the livelihood of the Eskimos. The seal was not just food, it provided clothing with its fur, implements with its bones, and light and warmth with its oil. It seems, however, that the seal hunt, a decidedly extensive form of economy, is leading to a decline. There has been a clear decrease in catches since 1920. The large species are particularly hunted, the harp seal (Phoca grönlandica), which is over two meters long, the even larger folding cap (Cystophora cristata), the smaller 21

24 Ringed seal (Phoca hispida) and the common seal (Phoca vitulina). Nevertheless, one can almost speak of a hunting dorado today when one realizes that in 1956 only seal skins were exported. In contrast, whaling in Greenland has increased. The pilot whale, which used to be very rare, is increasingly being caught in the SW, while the white whale z. B. hardly occurs in the south. The musk ox, the last representatives of large glacial fauna, are found mainly in the east of the island and are under hunting protection. Agriculture did not develop again in a modest way until after the Second World War. As in the days of the Normans, sheep breeding is paramount, perhaps with the difference that the Vikings - judging by the size of the remains of the stables - must have kept much larger herds. Today the main grazing areas are in the very south of the island around Julianehab, in a protected inner position of the fjords. Vegetables, potatoes, beets and grasses for hay production are grown in the SW, and even barley grows in favorable places, but it can no longer ripen. Some mineral resources are economically significant, of which the cryolite deposit near I vigtut has become world-famous because of its solitary deposit with 37% of exports (1958). The cryolite or ice stone, an almost colorless fluoride, is found as a product of contact metamorphosis in a tin-bearing granite near Ivigtut. In the past it was used as an additive in aluminum production, today in le production. The deposits are nearly exhausted and no further occurrences are known. The coal from the Cretaceous Period - mined near Qutdligssat on Disko-Iceland - is used for our own needs; In 1956 the production was t. On the east coast, galena and zinc blende are mined near Mestersvig; the prospecting is said to be in decline, which must probably be related to the unfavorable living conditions. 2) The trade balance in this developing country is quite passive. The percentage breakdown of import and export is purely geographic, mainly food and beverages (24%), machines (15%), fuels (13%), textiles (8%) and wood (7%) were imported . The following are involved in export: ores (63%), fish of all kinds (32%). The export is also reflected in the professional composition of the population. Two thirds of the people in Greenland are in the growing industry, in trade and in the 22nd

25 traffic and live in larger settlements and cities in the southwest. The high proportion of fish exports confirms what has already been said about the development of the Greenlanders into fishing people, whereby it should be borne in mind that the fish not only wants to be caught, but also has to be preserved and preserved in the remote location of Greenland if it is a real trading object should stay. The historical significance of Greenland begins with the time of the Viking voyages in the 9th century, which in turn was based on the expeditions of Irish monks in the 6th and 7th centuries, during which American soil was probably set foot on American soil as early as 546 by the later canonized monk Brandan. Greenland itself was hardly touched at that time, since the ice-bearing East Greenland Current was a natural obstacle in the way of the explorers striving to the west and forced them south. In order to be able to appreciate the achievements of the Normans, one must consider the geographical conditions under which the Vikings accomplished their great deeds. It is not examined here whether a thirst for adventure or proud men's gymnastics or both were the driving forces behind the dangerous search for new territory. The Norwegian Norsemen lived on the warm side of the ocean, the Gulf Stream favored their seaside land and coastal waters. The current with its northeast direction did not correspond to their striving to the west. The prevailing wind direction was to the east; often the western storms lashed the water masses of the sea against their fjord coast, which was often enough to offer them protection from the rigors of the sea. Nevertheless, contrary to these two natural facts, they ventured out into the open sea to the west. Why? Did you know about the 6th century Irish monks' journeys? Did you know their results? Did you hear about the islands of the Shetlands and the Faroe Islands from hearsay? Were you informed about the different sea currents west of your coasts? It can be assumed that the Norwegian Norsemen had heard of these things. In this way, their ventures to the west could turn into stage journeys with skilful use of the Irmingerstrom, a branch of the Gulf Stream which, under the pressure of an underwater ridge between the Faroe Islands and Iceland, carries warm water to the west. 23

26 At the beginning of the 7th century the Shetlands were reached first, but then the historical events become clearer. Around 830, the Vikings drove the Irish settlement to the Faroe Islands. The next jump was to Iceland around the year 874; Here, too, they followed in the footsteps of the Irish. Up to now the Normans have found familiar conditions everywhere, be they on the sea or on the coasts rich in waves or on the mist-shrouded shores of the islands. Only the proximity of Greenland with the ice brought new moments that they wanted to be recognized and overcome. According to reports from the Landnamab6k, Erik Rauda (Erich the Red), driven from his Icelandic adopted home, set off from Snaefellnes in W est Iceland to look for land again to the west, and on the middle of his way he should go up both the snow-covered Snaefellnes and the later so-called Ingolfberg Have seen Greenland. In view of the new coast, Erik reports on the ice masses (of the East Greenland Current) that took their way south and forced him with them. Erik had to drive around the southern tip of the new country - in the midst of the pack ice. There, however, the Normans on the west coast of the "green country" drove northwards again. Here they found their way into a well-known fjord world. They drove far into the hose-like inlets and finally set up their new settlements in 982 in protected locations. E ystribyggd. lm ttl u 11ldll ll Normans settlements v N WN "s ~ n ln Sr, .. n) I! ' J ~ ttt bowohnlq Odo 24

27 Southwest Greenland. Norman settlements from n.w.N. (n. Bruun.) 0 Now inhabited places Norman ruins When Erik's son Leif reached the American coast around the year 1000, almost the same situation was repeated. In search of more land (or wood!) He first drove north with the West Greenland Current, at the height of the later Holsteinborg he had to take this new direction with the turn of the north current to the west and soon he came to the area of ​​the South striving Labrador Current, which he inevitably had to follow. This is how Leif reached the American coast. The lands found received - from north to south - the Na- 25

28 tons of stone country (Helluland), woodland (Markland) and wine country (Vinland). This Norman naming corresponded entirely to the geographical location of the individual coastal stretches, which one could approach at that time according to the respective ice conditions in the Labrador Current. The location and delimitation of these areas are quite unclear in detail. The Vinland should certainly take up the largest area, namely from Newfoundland to Florida. The success of these Norman voyages had definitely been dependent on the favor of low-ice summers. From a geographical point of view, a Norman ski-cock map was like a drift-ice map in these Nordic areas, and thus corresponded to a current map. After the west coast of Greenland was reached by the Vikings very soon - probably already a year later - the beginnings of two settlement areas appeared: one in the area around today's Juliauehab and around Narssaq (Eystribyggd) and the other in the area around Godthab (Vestribyggd). The introduction of Christianity also fell in Erik's time - albeit against his will. Erik and his family had laid out his homesteads in Brattahlid, today's Kagsiarsuk, at the inner end of the ice-free Tunugdliark Fjord. The remains of his house can still be found among the Norman ruins, and the oldest church - it is said to have been built by his wife Thorhilde around 1001 - was uncovered in its foundation walls (6 by 2 meters) in 1962. The son Leif, who later rediscovered America, brought Christianity with him from Norway at the request of his mother. In the former Norman settlement area there are a number of remains of churches and bishoprics. In Bratrahlid there were a total of three places of worship, and in the second main town, Eystribyggds, in Gardar, today's Igaliko, the largest of all Norman churches in SW Greenland was 8 by 23 meters. The best preserved church, however, is the Kakortok Church, located southwest of Gardar, in the middle of a lonely and rarely inhabited area, which is probably one of the reasons for the building's still good condition; also here in Greenland in later times the ruins were convenient "stone quarries" for building houses. This completely differently built church in Kakortok was probably only built towards the end of the Norman era by bishops who were sent into the country to save Christianity (and the people!). But this or this bishop was the country's 26

29 Ruins of the church of Brattablid des stremd and hardly knew the large settlement areas of Brattahlid and Gardar, which were very close, but difficult to reach. Perhaps, however, they wanted to take the risk of building a new church center. If, however, this undertaking was true, it would be clear evidence of how little people in Europe knew about Greenland at that time and how great the ignorance of the geographical conditions in this country was. Perhaps those bishops only stayed briefly in the Greenland Normandy country just to initiate construction. After all, around 1400 Eystribyggd had almost 200 farms, around a dozen churches and two monasteries. In Vestribyggd it may have been half. A map of the ruins is synonymous with the settlement areas at that time. It cannot be overlooked that the Normans only lived in the sheltered interior of the fjords, which were ice-free in summer. Only one ruin is located 1750 m above sea level on the Igderfigsalik, a mountain between the two old main settlements Brattahlid and 27

30 Burial found from the chin of Brattahlid Gardar. Their meaning has long been unclear; presumably one is dealing with the remains of an observation station for drift ice coming from the west. These ruins, the Kjokkenmoddingern (rubbish heaps) and the writings from the middle of the 18th century provide information about the culture of the Normans, clearly above all those of Hans Egede. The Vikings raised cattle; they kept sheep, goats, and horses; they made butter and skyr, a curd cheese that is still a specialty in Iceland today. The herbaceous and grass fields offered the best pastures, and the house meadow (tun) was also known, which was deliberately fertilized and - as it is now in Iceland - was fenced in to prevent goats from being eaten by goats. They maintained the fire with wood (willow, birch and driftwood), peat or dried dung. They built their boats out of wood. The house was built with particular care, as protection against the harsh winters was to be created. They built their homes out of stone, put sods in between for sealing and made the roof out of wood, which was covered with sod. The shape of the man-high houses shows straight sides; shows several rooms (hus), 28

31 uinengruppe 2. No. 6. Eystribyggd '. South Part. Raumli: kitchen ~. Flat. "Yf: bedroom. 0 10m tnach 8t'u01n.) Which served different purposes. The kitchen (eldhus) and bedroom (skali) were mostly further apart because of the fire hazard.There were no windows, openings in the roof provided light and ensured smoke extraction. Gravel or clay floors formed a solid foundation for the rooms, which were up to 20m 2 in size. The fireplace in the kitchen was not only laid out with stones, it was also surrounded by protective stones or located lower down. The remnants of the sleeping quarters still show the sleeping areas that rise a few decimeters above the floor. Stables - often with clearly separated cattle stalls -, barns, storehouses, blacksmiths, boat houses, rooms for storing fishing gear and toilets rounded off the image of the courtyard. By 1500 the connections with Iceland and Norway were completely broken, and the once rapidly flourished Norman settlements fell into disrepair and their inhabitants disappeared. Much has been puzzled about the extinction of the Northmen on Greenland. Some want to associate the decline with a general deterioration in the climate

32 of them speak of armed conflicts and extermination by the Eskimos. Neither of these two opinions can be satisfactory. According to recent assumptions, it was more likely to have been due to the Norman culture itself that it had to die. The landscape of SW Greenland, the "Greenlandic Riviera", as L. Mecking called it, offered trees, shrubs, bushes, herbs and grasses due to the favorable ocean currents; thus a solid livelihood was given for the Northmen. However, since the wood was used for building and burning purposes, and since free grazing continued to hinder or even prevent forest growth through animal bites, a lack of wood had to set in over time. Here the comparison with the Mediterranean countries comes to mind. If American driftwood was washed up near Greenland, it must not be forgotten that in order to get it ashore, one had to leave the protective fjords and take up the battle with the pack ice. In Greenland, however, the Normans were more attached to the land and its farming than to the sea and its dangers; the Vikings had settled in Greenland. It is obvious that, under these circumstances, individual Normans moved northwards, not only meeting the Eskimos, but also having to discover that the seal hitting, which they were well aware of, was far more productive than in the south. The fact that the encounter with the Eskimos was far more peaceful than what some interpretations suggest is likely to be in the nature of the matter. Both peoples had to create their livelihood under difficult conditions, both could only learn from each other, which was certainly more productive than killing each other. Racial intermingling has certainly taken place. 3) Of the many arguments that try to explain the extinction of the Norman cultures here, some should be mentioned, because presumably some of these assumptions contributed to the decline. There was free trade with Greenland until the end of the 13th century, but this then became a royal privilege; a single ship, the "Knarre", established the connection with Europe at this time. The Normans were thus practically cut off from supplies; for in some years even this ship did not reach the Norman settlements. Furthermore, the long inbreeding is seen as a reason for decay; there was no refreshment of blood as a result of the decline in the connection with Europe. Whether a lack of 30

33 carbohydrates may have inhibited reproduction is now being rejected from a biological point of view. Nansen had already pointed out these two facts. When mixing with the Eskimos, which has also been recorded in more recent times, the dominant element at that time was the native population, while now the situation is exactly the opposite, because the Eskimos understandably want to feed on the European American civilization. What is certain is that the skeletons found reveal a striking degenerative phenomenon, which could confirm the question of inbreeding. The spread of a butterfly species (Agrotis oculta) is associated with a change in the climate, with the larvae feeding on the vegetation. Pupae of these butterflies were found in layers that coincide with the decline of the Norman cultures. A similar pest disaster was observed in SW Greenland. Historical events in Europe may have contributed to the fact that at the beginning of the 15th century the last ship left the European continent with the fixed destination Greenland, the Norman settlements, was based on these historical events, insofar as they had an influence on Greenland often incredibly carelessly interpreted geographical knowledge. Poetry and reality in the geographic sector were closely related at the time, but were often far enough apart. What can one learn from the report by the Dane Clavus, who worked as a cartographer at the Danish court at the beginning of the 15th century: "The Greenland peninsula is connected in the north with a country that is inevitable because of the ice But, as I have seen, pagan Karelians come to Greenland in large numbers every day, and that without doubts from the other side of the North Pole ". Even Hans Egede, the deserving Danish Greenland missionary, who moved out with his family in 1721 to work in SW Greenland, writes in his famous book "Des old Greenland's new pearls or natural history", which appeared in Copenhagen in 1742, on the distance between Greenland and America "... you can shoot a fish from both sides". Throughout the Middle Ages and into modern times, Greenland was considered an area of ​​Europe. The "Königsspiegel", excellently written around 1240, still leaves Greenland as a half-31

34 island of Europe, which connected with the continent somewhere in the far north; this land bridge was called "Ubygder". From the animal world occurring there, one inferred in this geographically extremely important work a connection with the European mainland. The ending is astonishing for this work in particular, because as early as 1070 one can read from Adam von Bremen that Greenland is a non minima insula. The acquaintance with Svalbard - at the end of the 12th century - made the assumption of a land connection in the Arctic arise again. In this context there is also the term "Greenland Driver", which was used in the whaling era and often enough never saw Greenland. Even for Martin Beheim - at the end of the 15th century - it was clear that Greenland was a European peninsula. This assumption persisted into the 18th century; at least one was in doubt about the real context, as was the case with Hans Egede. Egede's documents in particular, which he had collected before the trip, were not only not particularly encouraging for him, but they also exposed the uncertainty in geographical matters. 4) In such a report that Egede left us, it says: "... Greenland actually bears the name Spitsbergen and is below 80 degrees. In the southern part below 60 degrees, wild people live and it is called Straet Davis ". The eastern part, which lies opposite Iceland, we read on, is the area in which Norwegian colonies are located, but which can no longer be reached today because of the icebergs. And the Bishop of Drontheim wrote to Egede in 1711: "Greenland is, as there is no doubt, a part of America, and it must be close to Cuba and Hispaniola, where there is supposed to be a lot of gold!" Nevertheless, Hans Egede went to Greenland to follow an internal assignment as a missionary to research the fate of the people of the old Norman settlements. It took him four weeks to get to the south coast of Greenland and another four weeks to get to the coast. He lived in SW Greenland until 1736 and put his experiences and insights into his valuable works that are still worth reading today. 32

35 GERMAN HONORARY IN NARVIK Graves are among the most important documents of a people. That is why we visit them again and again on our travels, commemorate the dead and honor them with a wreath, a flower greeting and silent remembrance. This year marks the 50th anniversary of the outbreak of the First World War. Time, that of WWII for the 25th time. As a representative of the many cemeteries, may this memorial from the German Cemetery in Narvik honor the fallen and dead of all peoples. 33

36 Gymn. Prof. Dr. DIETRICH OTTMAR THE LOFOT FISHERIES BETWEEN TRADITION AND PROGRESS "That was the Lofot he had heard so much about since he was a little bug. A land in the Arctic Ocean that all the boys on the coast dreamed of and longed for. There heroic deeds were perpetrated, wealth gained there, and there was a race against death. A migration of peoples had gone up there over many centuries and many had perished at sea, some came home with bare coins, but most stayed for life in poverty. And yet they went back here again and again, year after year, one generation after the other. That was the adventure. This is where they had to come. And now it was his turn too. Now he saw Lofot. " In his book "Die Lofotfischer (The Last Wiking)", from which this section is taken, Johann Bojer describes in a gripping manner the happening around 1890, as in centuries before, about the spring cod catching on the well-known Lofoten archipelago off the northern Norwegian coast. Does this catch, which is concentrated for only a few weeks in the first months of the year and also in a narrow space between the Lofoten and the mainland, still have the same significance today in the age of year-round deep sea fishing as it once did? A few statistical figures may answer this: Norway has been in first place among the fishing nations in recent years. Norway has a population of less than 4 million! While the average catch per head of the population for the Federal Republic of Germany is around 12 kg of fish, it is around 400 kg for Norway. More than 80% of the Norwegian catch has to be exported; they provide about a quarter of the total Norwegian export value (a further quarter are wood and wood products, a quarter are ores and metals, a quarter are other export goods). Among the fish caught by Norwegians, herring ranks first with around half of the amount landed, ahead of cod or cod (15-200 / o share) - but cod catches with around 30 / o share of the total value of the nor- 34

37 The distribution of shoals of cod in the Lofoten area (Fig. 1) by Wegian fishing leads the way in the comparison of values. With these few figures, the great importance of fishing and cod fishing in particular for the Norwegian economy should be sufficiently proven. Fishing is still one of the most important industries, especially for the coastal population of Northern Norway. Norway is also increasingly participating in the capital-intensive deep-sea and bank fisheries, which were greatly expanded in the post-war period and which, with larger vessels, enable profitable year-round fishing with larger vessels. However, the majority of Norwegian catches are still made in the coastal fishing grounds. It should be noted that in the past few years the daily fishing, which is carried out with small, mostly motor-less boats as a sideline by farmers in the vicinity of their homes, has declined more and more. Most of the Norwegian landings are still provided by the traditional herring and cod catches, which can usually only be operated for a few months a year and thus represent a decidedly seasonal fishery. For the economy of Northern Norway, cod fishing in the Lofoten Islands, which after all accounts for around a tenth of the Norwegian fishing value, is of great importance up to 35