Why has the Japanese flag changed?
Flag of japan
The Flag of japan (jap. 日 章 旗Nisshōki ‚Sonnenwappenflagge 'or 日 の 丸 Hi no Maru‚ dt. About "Sonnenrund", "Sonnenkreis") shows a large vermilion-red circle arranged exactly in the middle as a sun symbol on a white background.
The Hinomaru flag with the sun circle, also called Nisshoki, was introduced on August 5, 1854. Already at the time of the Meiji Restoration in 1868 it was considered the national flag. Although the sun circle design was officially introduced for flags at sea in 1870, it was not formally declared a national flag until August 13, 1999. Up to this point in time there was no legally determined state flag, even if Hinomaru was widely regarded as a synonym of Japan both domestically and abroad.
In 1999 the aspect ratio was changed from 7:10 to 2: 3. In addition, according to the regulation from 1870, the sun's circle was slightly offset by 1/100 towards the mast. In today's version, the disc in the center is shifted towards the Liek. The symbolism of the sun circle (sun round) pervades the entire history of Japan.
It was said to be the emblem of Mommu, the 42nd Japanese Emperor. The oldest surviving flag is kept in the Umpoji Temple in Yamanashi. It is believed that it originated long before the 16th century and was passed on from dynasty to dynasty. Other Japanese myths trace the Hinomaru symbolism back to an event in the 13th century. According to legend, a Buddhist priest gave the emperor a sun circle flag to honor Amaterasu, sun goddess and ancestor of the Shinto faith.
In the time of the Meiji Restoration, in which the empire was renewed, the now iconic sun circle flag Hinomaru and the Kyokujitsuki (Japanese 旭日 旗, German "flag of the rising sun") were spread.
Other Japanese flags were developed from a similar aesthetic point of view to consolidate the idea of a united Japanese empire. The standard of the Japanese emperor is a classic example of this. It also shows a central golden disc on a red background, which is decorated with chrysanthemums, the symbol of the Japanese emperor since the 12th century.
Propaganda posters, school books and films depicted the flag as a source of national pride to reinforce the citizens' patriotic sense of identity. According to an official order, the flag had to be hoisted in homes on national holidays as well as at celebrations and other occasions specified by the government.
More flags of Japan
The version with the 16 red rays (Kyokujitsuki) was used by the Japanese armed forces until the end of World War II. It has been reused for the Japanese Navy since 1954. In the surrounding Asian countries, which were occupied by Japan, this flag still evokes negative associations. All the more so since this flag is still used today by right-wing conservative groups in Japan.
The standard of Emperor Naruhito shows a golden, 16-petalled chrysanthemum flower (in stylized form), which is located in the center of a red flag. The aspect ratio is 2: 3.
- ↑日 の 丸 - Hi no Maru. In: www.wadoku.de. Retrieved April 29, 2021 (German, Japanese).
- ↑Japanese coat of arms - by Prof. Dr. phil. Rudolf Lange (1850–1933) Berlin, 1903. In: www.unterstein.net. May 15, 2004, accessed on April 29, 2021: “(...) The following story sounds even more anecdotal and seems to have been invented to modify the previous coat of arms hi no maru "Round from the sun" in order to explain “plum blossom” and chō “butterfly”. (...) "
- ↑The Japanese Flag. In: www.kanpai-japan.com. March 12, 2012, accessed on April 29, 2021 (English): "The flag of Japan is called 日 の 丸 (の 旗) hi no maru (no hata), which means ‘(flag of) circle of sun‘. In official documents, it is referred to as 日 章 旗 nisshôki, the 'Japanese banner.' "
- ↑日 の 丸 っ て 英語 で な ん て 言 う の？ - How to say hi no maru in English ? In: eikaiwa.dmm.com. October 14, 2017, accessed April 29, 2021 (English, Japanese): "日本 の 国旗 は 、 白 い 長方形 の 真 ん 中 に 紅 の 丸 が あ あ る も の だ。。 こ の 旗 は 公式 に は Nisshōki (" sun-mark flag " ) と 日本語 で は 呼 ば れ 、 よ り 一般 的 に はHi no maru ("circle of the sun") と 呼 ば れ る。 こ の 旗 は 、 日 の 出 る 国 と い う 日本 日本 の ッ ッ ク ネ ー ム を 象 徴 し た も の だ。 "
- ↑ Janese Silvey: Soccer team’s use of Rising Sun flag causes stir. In: Columbia Daily Tribune. April 19, 2012. Retrieved November 12, 2017.
- ↑ Naoto Okamura: Japan fans warned about rising sun flag(english), Reuters. August 8, 2008. Retrieved April 5, 2012.
- ↑Japan fans warned about rising sun flag(english). In: Japan sample, August 8, 2008. Archived from the original on August 31, 2011. Retrieved on April 5, 2012.
- ↑World: Asia-Pacific Reprise for Japan's anthem(english), BBC News. August 15, 1999.
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