What does the Spanish word estoy mean

Ser and estar: explanation of the difference

Estar is used, among other things, to describe feelings and moods, for location information or in connection with the progressive forms. Ser is used when you want to show possessions or to describe things such as occupations, nationalities or personality traits. In addition, there is the use of ser in connection with permanent properties, with colors or materials.

conjugation of verbs ser and estar

To be or not to be? Here first the conjugation of the verbs ser and estar:

Él / ella / usteditestá
Nosotros / assomosestamos
Vosotros / assoisestáis
Ellos / as / ustedessonestán

use of ser and estar

When to use ser? Here is an overview:

Ser Is used,

  • to describe nationalities or origin.
    Examples: Soy de Madrid. Somos de España.
  • to introduce yourself or to introduce another person.
    Examples: Soy Alba. ¿Sois Carmen y David?
  • to define or describe a person or a place in more detail.
    Example: Velázquez es un pintor famoso. Buenos Aires is the capital of Argentina.
  • to ask about the profession.
    Examples: ¿Eres informático? No, soy arquitecto.
  • to describe properties of people and things.
    Examples: It morena. David es alto. La falda es azul. La mesa es de madera.
  • to ask for the date, time and price.
    Examples: Hoy es lunes. Son read nueve. ¿Cuánto it?
  • to indicate ownership.
    Example: Este libro es mío.

Estar Is used,

  • to indicate a place.
    Example: ¿Dónde está el hotel?
  • to describe a condition or personal well-being or to evaluate things.
    Examples: ¿Cómo estás? Estoy bien. ¡El gazpacho está rico!
  • to describe temporary, non-permanent conditions.
    Examples: Estoy cansado. La farmacia está abierta.
  • to describe actions that are currently taking place (estar + gerundio).
    Example: Estoy escribiendo un correo.

Special features when using ser and estar

Important: Unlike in German, the age in Spanish is neither with ser, still with estar given, but with the verb tener (to have).

Example: David tiene 29 años.

There are also certain expressions and idioms that use either ser or estar are formed.

Idioms / expressions with ser:
- damn it
- es necesario, es bueno

Idioms / expressions with estar:
- estar de acuerdo
- estar abierto (Store)
- estar de baja
- estar de viaje

Some adjectives can use both ser, as well as with estar are used, but subsequently also change their meaning. Here is an overview of common uses:

adjectivewith serwith estar
ser / estar listoto be cleverbe finished
ser / estar atentobe politebe attentive
ser bueno / estar bien / estar buenobe graciousbe healthy / look good
ser / estar viejobe oldlook old

A specialty concerns the use of ser and estarto indicate marital status.
In Spain, estar is used for this, in Latin America it is against it ser.
Example: María está / es casada. (Sp. / LatAm.)