What is the definition of ethics 1


Moral philosophy. 1. Term: Ethics is the doctrine or theory of action according to the distinction between good and bad. The subject of ethics is morality. The Greek ethics was empirical and normative at the same time. Today an empirical, descriptive ethic is strictly distinguished from that normative ethics, which formulates an ought; this ought to be generally binding.

2. It can be five perspectives of ethics on morality distinguish: a) At content A moral code is about the question of which rules are to be included and which are not.

b) At the Reason it is a matter of naming “good reasons” for the general applicability of normative rules.

c) The legitimation moral rules ensues - at least in consensus ethics - through the consent of those affected and must be distinguished from the discursive justification.

d) The motivation To act according to the moral rules is to be distinguished again from justification and legitimation, although in individual cases “good reasons” or one's own consent can appear as motives for action.

e) The questions about the Origin and development moral rules occupy a large space in scientific moral research. It can be three variants differentiate: The variant of the Weber type (Max Weber thesis) or Hayek examines the origin and development of morality in the context of social, cultural evolution. Modern economic approaches reconstruct the development of morality from individual calculations or as its - intended or unintended - result; Finally, the purely comparative empirical moral research should be mentioned.

3. Justification of standards: a) With regard to theoretical foundations moral norms can be five key approaches differ from ethics.
(1) The order of nature contains the rules of human coexistence (naturalism), whereby "nature" is understood in Greek as cosmos, early modern as teleological, later as scientific, today especially as (socio- or evolutionary) biological nature.
(2) Norms become Christian in Will of god justified.
(3) The norms become Marxist Laws of history justified. These three reasons fall back on fundamentals that cannot be influenced by human volition.
(4) Discourse ethics draws on those inherent in human argumentation, necessary submissions back that have normative character. This justification goes back to an authority independent of human volition.
(5) The most widespread use today is the establishment of standards in human will in two main variants: A justification in benefit - utilitarianism - and in consensus - consensus ethics. Here norms - qua collective self-binding - are subject to human will.

b) According to the Cognitivism norms are recognized in a process that is analogous to the establishment of truth and controlled by reason. In contrast, he says no Non-cognitivism such a possibility and bases norms on interests (willing: decisionism) or feeling (benevolence).

c) Ethics can either all actions because of the goals or consequences - teleological or consequentialist Ethics - judging as good or bad or highlighting some particularly important actions that are unconditionally valid as such, regardless of the consequences - deontological ethics, Greek to deon = duty.

d) Related, but not identical, is Weber's distinction between those who do not tolerate compromises Ethics of conviction - Actions are good (solely) because of the disposition - and the Ethics of responsibility - The assessment has to attribute the average foreseeable consequences of the action to the agent.

4. Content of ethics: The content of ethics in antiquity and in the Middle Ages was given by norms, manners and customs that were embedded in everyday life; they were later put into concrete terms in catalogs of virtues and duties and an expanded casuistry. In the course of modernization processes, these traditions are gradually dissolving. Modern ethics since I. Kant therefore increasingly sees itself as Ethics of principles and more recently as Procedural ethics: It lays down general principles, e.g. Kant's categorical imperative or the imperative of the protection of life in H. Jonas, which are then applied - in a certain ethical procedure - to the concrete decision-making circumstances.

5. NewerDevelopments: Especially since Kant, the discussion has focused on questions of Reason focused on moral norms. In more recent times the question of Implementation Paying increased attention to morality. The basic problem is that no moral system can last in the long term that requires the norm addressee to act systematically against his own interests or to act under conditions that do not allow the intended consequences of the moral act to materialize. In this context, the distinction between Individual ethics and Institutional ethics in importance. In modern society, the institutional level systematically takes precedence over the level of action when dealing with moral conflicts: the rules are to be designed politically - also in terms of corporate policy - in such a way that individual moral action is possible (in economic terms: incentive-compatible). Ethics thus becomes an ethics of order (rule ethics, institutional ethics) and, in relation to individual action, an ethics of incentives that is about one's own and at the same time general improvement.